As I have discussed before there are arguably clear connections between Apollon and Selene (the moon) at times more overwhelmingly apparent than the connections between Apollon and Helios (the sun) which was a huge part of later Hellenic period. I have stated before that the association with the moon in regards to Apollon is tied to his functions as god of the portal/doorway (connecting the doorway of the household with one of Apollon’s other important household roles as Noumenios, the god who brings forth the new month in the lunar calendar with the appearance of the crescent moon. When it comes right down to it, the sun plays very much a similar role to the moon…they are time keepers in many ways, as well as generative and destructive each in their own turn. There is really very little true distinction between the moon and the sun in religious symbolism, each possessing features that are mirror of the other….just the gender of the ruling deity tends to change in accordance to the beliefs of the culture.
In the lunar Hellenic calendar we find the strong association of Apollon with the moon likely related the most strongly to the concept of time passage, in addition to its generative associations. We can see Apollon here common with Janus, whose association with I have discussed before, as a god of the gates through which the sun and moon pass in the cycle of days, months and years, as well as the gates of birth and death. This would be also very much common with the association with the crescent moon with Siva, most particularly the waxing moon, with the greek week being originally containing a division of 10 day periods, we can see Apollon particularly likewise associated with the first decad of the moon phases. We can see the associations of youth, beauty, generative, nurture, and the passage of days and months. The wheel of time turns with the moon and the sun. Even in the Hellenic calendar whereas significance was given to the moon to mark the passage of days, the year was marked in various Hellenic calendars as the first new crescent following a major solar event….a solstice of an equinox depending on what calendar one was following. Thus the moon and the sun work together to mark the passage of time, for which the associations of Apollo and Diana with the sun and moon in Roman art usually tended to have a theme in line with the passage of time.
We see this theme to be connected strongly to Apollon in many ways…first through his providence over nurture of the young, maturation, and then sacrifice/death, as well well as the statements of the Orphic hymn which declared Apollon as the god who moved the passage of time by summoning the seasons each in turn with his song, the same song which Socrates states kept all the spheres of the universe in harmony. Even as the grandson of Koios, the northern axis of the heavens around which the stars move to mark the passage of the year and the seasons is worthy of note. The providence of Apollon is so strongly connected with the seasonal passage of time in which there is appropriate time for al things…for young to be born to the flocks, for the fruits of the earth to be tended, and for the death to come to all things, whichis also why he is noted for objecting to the unseasonal death of Aclestis in Euripedes play of the same name. Like Janus, he is all seeing, viewing in all directions, and like Siva he holds all dimensions of time and therefore he beholds the past present and future as noted by the three coils of the serpent around his neck.
It as such that he can be logos, and truth and revelation, by taking part and being as with the moon and the sun and overseeing the three manifestations of time.
Khaire Apollon, Jai Siva